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Besides the typically known kernel types, there are some kernel forms that are rarely heard of and very specialized.
A rump kernel is a hypervisor-like kernel that can be used to provide software to another system type. For instance, a NetBSD rump kernel runs various NetBSD drivers in the user space. This NetBSD rump kernel can run on a Linux system to provide the NetBSD drivers to the Linux system.
A separation kernel divides a system's resources into multiple parts. The data-flow between parts is controlled and monitored. Separation kernels provide additional security sense certain applications and resources can be separated from the rest of the system.
A partitioning kernel "partitions" the hardware's resources into two or more parts. These "partitions" act as separate physical systems.
A nanokernel is a very small (in terms of lines of code) microkernel. The terms "Picokernel", "Femtokernel", and "Attokernel" are synonyms of "nanokernel". However, the difference (if any exist) between a nanokernel and microkernel are debatable.
- Rump Kernels - http://rumpkernel.org/
- Separation Kernels - http://intelligentsystemssource.com/separation-kernels-enable-rapid-development-of-trustworthy-systems/
- Anykernel - http://dcjtech.info/topic/anykernel-another-kernel-structure/
- Exokernel - http://dcjtech.info/topic/about-exokernels/
- Hybrid Kernels - http://dcjtech.info/topic/quick-explanation-of-hybrid-kernel/
- Microkernels – http://dcjtech.info/topic/about-microkernels/
- Minix Kernel (Essay) - http://dcjtech.info/topic/the-minix-kernel-essay/
- Monolithic Kernels – http://dcjtech.info/topic/a-brief-explanation-of-monolithic-kernels/
- Unikernels - http://dcjtech.info/topic/unikernels-lightweight-kernel-design/
- General Operating System Concepts - http://dcjtech.info/topic/general-operating-system-concepts/