Web Development: Namespaces, Declarations, and More

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  • DevynCJohnson
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    Namespaces

    Namespaces are used to prevent tag-name conflicts. Namespaces allow tags to use name-prefixes (i.e. "<x:tag>"). Below are some namespaces for various markup languages and semantic markup languages.

    • Contact - http://www.w3.org/2000/10/swap/pim/contact#
    • DOAP - http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#
    • DocBook - xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
    • Dublin Core - http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
    • FOAF - http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/
    • HTML - http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
    • MathML - http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML
    • OpenGraph - http://ogp.me/ns#
    • OpenMath - http://www.openmath.org/OpenMath
    • Open Office XML (Core Properties) - http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/package/2006/metadata/core-properties
    • RDF - http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
    • RDFS - http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
    • SpreadsheetML - http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/spreadsheetml/2006/main
    • SVG - http://www.w3.org/2000/svg
    • WXSL - http://www.w3schools.com/w3style.xsl
    • X3D 3.2 - http://www.web3d.org/specifications/x3d-3.2.xsd
    • XHTML - http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml
    • XLink - http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink
    • XML - http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace
    • XMLNS - http://www.w3.org/2000/xmlns/
    • XPath Functions - http://www.w3.org/2005/xpath-functions
    • XS - http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
    • XSD - http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#
    • XSI - http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance
    • XSL - http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform
    • XUL - http://www.mozilla.org/keymaster/gatekeeper/there.is.only.xul

    Using Namespaces

    • HTML5 - <html prefix="dc: <a href="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/">http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/</a>" lang="en">
    • HTML5 and OpenGraph - <html prefix="og: <a href="http://ogp.me/ns#">http://ogp.me/ns#</a>">
    • HTML5 and Schema (Microdata) - <html itemscope="" itemtype="http://schema.org/WebPage">
    • RDF/XML - <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:doap="http://usefulinc.com/ns/doap#">
    • XHTML - <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" version="XHTML+RDFa 1.0" xml:lang="en">
    • XUL - <window id="vbox" title="Text" xmlns="http://www.mozilla.org/keymaster/gatekeeper/there.is.only.xul">

    Declarations

    Declarations, DocTypes, or DTDs (Document Type Declarations) specify the document type. Without a specified doctype, web-browsers will use "quirks mode" to determine for themselves how to parse and process the document. Below is a list of declarations (or doctypes).

    • DocBook - <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?><book xml:id="book" xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" version="5.0">
    • HTML 2.0 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//IETF//DTD HTML 2.0//EN">
    • HTML 3.2 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2 Final//EN">
    • HTML 4.01 Frameset - <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">
    • HTML 4.01 Strict - <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">
    • HTML 4.01 Transitional - <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
    • HTML5 - <!DOCTYPE html>
    • MathML 1.01 - <!DOCTYPE math SYSTEM "http://www.w3.org/Math/DTD/mathml1/mathml.dtd">
    • MathML 2.0 - <!DOCTYPE math PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD MathML 2.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/Math/DTD/mathml2/mathml2.dtd">
    • MusicXML - <!DOCTYPE score-partwise PUBLIC "-//Recordare//DTD MusicXML 3.0 Partwise//EN" "http://www.musicxml.org/dtds/partwise.dtd">
    • OpenMath - <OMOBJ xmlns="http://www.openmath.org/OpenMath">
    • SVG 1.0 - <!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/2001/REC-SVG-20010904/DTD/svg10.dtd">
    • SVG 1.1 - <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" version="1.1">
    • SVG 1.1 Basic - <!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.1 Basic//EN" "http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/1.1/DTD/svg11-basic.dtd">
    • SVG 1.1 Full - <!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/1.1/DTD/svg11.dtd">
    • SVG 1.1 Tiny - <!DOCTYPE svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD SVG 1.1 Tiny//EN" "http://www.w3.org/Graphics/SVG/1.1/DTD/svg11-tiny.dtd">
    • WML - <!DOCTYPE wml PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD WML 1.1//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/wml_1.1.xml" >
    • X3D - <!DOCTYPE X3D PUBLIC "ISO//Web3D//DTD X3D 3.2//EN" "http://www.web3d.org/specifications/x3d-3.2.dtd">
    • XHTML + RDFa 1.0 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-1.dtd">
    • XHTML 1.1 + RDFa 1.1 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml-rdfa-2.dtd">
    • XHTML 1.0 Frameset - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-frameset.dtd">
    • XHTML 1.0 Strict - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">
    • XHTML 1.0 Transitional - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
    • XHTML 1.1 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
    • XHTML 1.1 + MathML - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1 plus MathML 2.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/Math/DTD/mathml2/xhtml-math11-f.dtd">
    • XHTML5 - <!DOCTYPE html><html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
    • XHTML Basic 1.0 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
    • XHTML + MathML + SVG - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1 plus MathML 2.0 plus SVG 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/2002/04/xhtml-math-svg/xhtml-math-svg.dtd">
    • XHTML + MathML + SVG Profile - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1 plus MathML 2.0 plus SVG 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/2002/04/xhtml-math-svg/xhtml-math-svg.dtd">
    • XHTML + MathML + SVG Profile (SVG host) - <!DOCTYPE svg:svg PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1 plus MathML 2.0 plus SVG 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/2002/04/xhtml-math-svg/xhtml-math-svg.dtd">
    • XHTML Mobile Profile 1.0 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD XHTML Mobile 1.0//EN" "http://www.wapforum.org/DTD/xhtml-mobile10.dtd">
    • XHTML Mobile Profile 1.1 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD XHTML Mobile 1.1//EN" "http://www.openmobilealliance.org/tech/DTD/xhtml-mobile11.dtd">
    • XHTML Mobile Profile 1.2 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//WAPFORUM//DTD XHTML Mobile 1.2//EN" "http://www.openmobilealliance.org/tech/DTD/xhtml-mobile12.dtd">
    • XHTML Basic 1.0 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">
    • XHTML Basic 1.1 - <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic11.dtd">
    • XML 1.0 - <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
    • XSL 1.0 - <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">

    Microformats

    Microformats is a form of semantic markup that uses existing "class" and "rel" attributes (and possibly others) in HTML and XHTML to provide additional metadata for search engines and other entities that use metadata.

    • hAtom – for marking up Atom feeds from within standard HTML
    • hCalendar - events
    • hCard - contact information
    • hMedia - audio/video content
    • hAudio - audio content
    • hNews - news content
    • hProduct - products
    • hRecipe - recipes and food
    • hResume - resumes/CVs
    • hReview - reviews
    • rel-directory - distributed directory creation and inclusion
    • rel-enclosure - multimedia attachments on webpages
    • rel-license - specification of copyright license
    • rel-nofollow - an attempt to discourage third-party content spam
    • rel-tag - decentralized tagging (Folksonomy)
    • xFolk - tagged links
    • XHTML Friends Network (XFN) - social relationships
    • XOXO - lists and outlines

    Abbreviations

    • BLD - Basic Logic Dialect
    • DHTML - Dynamic HyperText Markup Language
    • DOAP - Description of a Project
    • DTD - Document Type Declaration
    • HTML - HyperText Markup Language
    • MathML - Mathematical Markup Language
    • OOXML - Office Open XML
    • OWL - Web Ontology Language
    • RDFa - Resource Description Framework in Attributes
    • RDF - Resource Description Framework
    • RDFS - Resource Description Framework Schema
    • RIF - Rule Interchange Format
    • SGML - Standard Generalized Markup Language
    • SML - Spreadsheet Markup Language
    • SVG - Scalable Vector Graphics
    • WAI-ARIA - Web Accessibility Initiative – Accessible Rich Internet Applications
    • WML - Wireless Markup Language
    • X3D - Extensible 3D Graphics
    • XHTML - eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
    • XML - eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
    • XS - XML Schema
    • XSD - XML Schema Definition
    • XSI - XML Schema Instance Information
    • XUL - XML User Interface Language

    Further Reading

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