Ubuntu cheat sheet

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  • Author
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  • Saptarshi Nag
    Saptarshi Nag
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    • Topics - 6
    • @saptarshi

    PRIVILEGES

    • sudo command – run command as root
    • sudo -s – open a root shell
    • sudo -s -u user – open a shell as user
    • sudo -k – forget sudo passwords
    • gksudo command – visual sudo dialog (GNOME)
    • kdesudo command – visual sudo dialog (KDE)
    • sudo visudo – edit /etc/sudoers
    • gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME)
    • kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE)
    • passwd – change your password

    DISPLAY

    • sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart – restart X and return to login (GNOME)
    • sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart – restart X and return to login (KDE)
    • (file) /etc/X11/xorg.conf – display configuration
    • sudo dexconf – reset xorg.conf configuration
    • Ctrl+Alt+Bksp – restart X display if frozen
    • Ctrl+Alt+FN – switch to tty N
    • Ctrl+Alt+F7 – switch back to X display

    SYSTEM SERVICES

    • start service – start job service (Upstart)
    • stop service – stop job service (Upstart)
    • status service – check if service is running(Upstart)
    • /etc/init.d/service start – start service(SysV)
    • /etc/init.d/service stop – stop service (SysV)
    • /etc/init.d/service status – check service(SysV)
    • /etc/init.d/service restart – restart service(SysV)
    • runlevel – get current runlevel

    PACKAGE MANAGEMENT

    • apt-get update – refresh available updates
    • apt-get upgrade – upgrade all packages
    • apt-get dist-upgrade – upgrade with package replacements; upgrade Ubuntu version
    • apt-get install pkg – install pkg
    • apt-get purge pkg – uninstall pkg
    • apt-get autoremove – remove obsolete packages
    • apt-get -f install – try to fix broken packages
    • dpkg --configure -a – try to fix broken packages
    • dpkg -i pkg.deb – install file pkg.deb
    • (file) /etc/apt/sources.list – APT repository list

    NETWORK

    • ifconfig – show network information
    • iwconfig – show wireless information
    • sudo iwlist scan – scan for wireless networks
    • sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart – reset network for manual configurations
    • (file) /etc/network/interfaces – manual configuration
    • ifup interface – bring interface online
    • ifdown interface – disable interface

    SPECIAL PACKAGES

    • ubuntu-desktop – standard Ubuntu environment
    • kubuntu-desktop – KDE desktop
    • xubuntu-desktop – XFCE desktop
    • ubuntu-minimal – core Ubuntu utilities
    • ubuntu-standard – standard Ubuntu utilities
    • ubuntu-restricted-extras – non-free, but useful
    • kubuntu-restricted-extras – KDE of the above
    • xubuntu-restricted-extras – XFCE of the above
    • build-essential – packages used to compile programs
    • linux-image-generic – latest generic kernel image
    • linux-headers-generic – latest build headers

    FIREWALL

    • ufw enable – turn on the firewall
    • ufw disable – turn off the firewall
    • ufw default allow – allow all connections by default
    • ufw default deny – drop all connections by default
    • ufw status – current status and rules
    • ufw allow port – allow traffic on port
    • ufw deny port – block port
    • ufw deny from ip – block IP address

    APPLICATION NAMES

    • nautilus – file manager (GNOME)
    • dolphin – file manager (KDE)
    • konqueror – web browser (KDE)
    • kate – text editor (KDE)
    • gedit – text editor (GNOME)

    SYSTEM

    • Recovery - Type the phrase "REISUB" while holding down Alt and SysRq (PrintScrn) with about 1 second between each letter. Your system will reboot.
    • lsb_release -a – get Ubuntu version
    • uname -r – get kernel version
    • uname -a – get all kernel information

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