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Sailfish OS is a special Linux operating system made by Jolla for mobile devices. Sailfish uses the Linux kernel, GNU userland, and Mer (fork of the MeeGo core). This operating system is a suitable alternative to Android, Firefox OS, and Ubuntu Mobile. Sailfish contains both proprietary and open-source software.
Sailfish was initially released November 2013 as the predecessor to MeeGo. MeeGo applications do not run natively on Sailfish. However, MeeGo and Symbian software can be easily ported to Sailfish.
Sailfish uses the Lipstick user interface which is a graphical shell that uses Wayland rather than X11. Among the different widget toolkits, Sailfish uses Qt by default.
Sailfish uses RPM package management. Also, this OS can use GNU/Linux applications since Sailfish is a GNU/Linux operating system. In addition, Sailfish has a compatibility layer that allows it to run Android apps. Sailfish uses Hybris to convert Bionic calls to glibc calls. Thus, Android apps can run on a glibc-based Linux system such as Sailfish.
Jolla sells the Jolla Tablet and Jolla Phone which are mobile devices that use Sailfish.
Sailfish works on x86, x86-64, ARM, and MIPS systems. The SDK is available for Linux, Windows, and OS X (http://releases.sailfishos.org/sdk/installers/). Alternately, developers can obtain the SDK's source code (http://releases.sailfishos.org/sdk/latest/).